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Allies of World War I

Allies of World War I
Entente Powers
Military alliance
1914–1918
  •      Allied and Associated Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Central Powers (and their colonies)
  •      Neutral Powers
Capital Not specified
Political structure Military alliance
Historical era World War I
 •  Established 1914
 •  Disestablished 1918
European military alliances prior to the war.

The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

The members of the original Entente Alliance of 1907 were the French Republic, the British Empire and the Russian Empire; Italy ended its alliance with the Central Powers and entered the war on the side of the Entente in 1915. Japan was another important member. Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Montenegro, and Romania[1] were secondary members of the Entente.[2]

The 1920 Treaty of Sèvres defines as the Principal Allied Powers: British Empire, French Republic, Italy and Japan. The Allied Powers comprised – together with the Principal Allied Powers – Armenia, Belgium, Greece, Hejaz, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serb-Croat-Slovene state and Czechoslovakia.[3]

The United States of America declared war on Germany in 1917 on the grounds that Germany had violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping and because of the Zimmermann Telegram sent to Mexico.[4] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than as a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements".[5] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war on her.[6]

Although the Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, they did not have independent foreign policies during World War I. The five-member British War Cabinet (BWC) exercised operational control of British Empire forces. However, the Dominion governments controlled recruiting, and did remove personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit.

From early 1917 the BWC was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion representation. The Australian Corps and Canadian Corps were placed for the first time under the command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenant Generals John Monash and Arthur Currie,[7] respectively, who reported in turn to British generals. In April 1918 operational control of all Entente forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander, Ferdinand Foch.

The only countries represented in the 1918 armistice which ended combat on the Western Front[8] were Britain, France and Germany.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Major affiliated state combatants 2
    • United Kingdom 2.1
      • War justifications 2.1.1
      • Colonies and dependencies 2.1.2
        • In Europe 2.1.2.1
        • In Africa 2.1.2.2
        • In North America 2.1.2.3
        • In Asia 2.1.2.4
        • In Oceania 2.1.2.5
    • Russia 2.2
    • France 2.3
    • Japan 2.4
    • Italy 2.5
  • Other affiliated state combatants 3
    • Belgium 3.1
    • Brazil 3.2
    • Montenegro 3.3
    • Nejd and Hasa 3.4
    • Serbia 3.5
    • Idrisid Emirate of Asir 3.6
  • Major co-belligerent state combatants 4
    • United States 4.1
  • Non-state combatants 5
  • Leaders 6
    • Serbia 6.1
    • Montenegro 6.2
    • Russia 6.3
    • Belgium 6.4
    • France 6.5
    • British Empire 6.6
      • Dominion of Canada 6.6.1
      • Commonwealth of Australia 6.6.2
      • Empire of India 6.6.3
      • Union of South Africa 6.6.4
      • New Zealand 6.6.5
      • Dominion of Newfoundland 6.6.6
    • Japan 6.7
    • Italy 6.8
    • Romania 6.9
    • Greece 6.10
    • United States 6.11
    • Portugal 6.12
    • Siam (Thailand) 6.13
    • Brazil 6.14
  • Personnel and casualties 7
  • Summary of Declarations of War 8
  • See also 9
  • Footnotes 10
  • References 11
  • Sources 12

History

A 1914 Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente.

The original alliance opposed to the Central Powers was the Triple Entente, which was formed by three Great European Powers:

The war began with the Austrian attack invasion of Serbia on 28 July 1914, in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Austrian Empire followed with an attack on the Serbian ally Montenegro on 8 August. On the Western Front, the two neutral States of Belgium and Luxembourg were immediately occupied by German troops as part of the German Schlieffen Plan.

Of the two Low Countries involved in the war, Luxembourg chose to capitulate, and was viewed as a collaborationist state by the Entente powers: Luxembourg never became part of the Allies, and only narrowly avoided Belgium's efforts of annexation, at the conclusion of hostilities in 1919. On 23 August Japan joined the Entente, which then counted seven members. . The entrance of the British Empire brought Nepal into the war.

On 23 May 1915, Italy entered the war on the Entente side and declared war on Austria; previously, Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance but had remained neutral since the beginning of the conflict. In 1916, Montenegro capitulated and left the Entente, and two nations joined, Portugal and Romania.

On 6 April 1917 the United States and its American allies entered the war. Liberia, Siam and Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia left the alliance and ended formal involvement in the war, by the signing of the treaty of Brest Litovsk in November effectively creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers again on 10 November 1918. The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five Great Powers:

Statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[9]
Population
(millions)
Land
(million sq. km)
GDP
($ billion)
First Wave: 1914
Russia Russian Empire (inc. Poland) 173.2 21.7 257.7
Finland 3.2 0.4 6.6
Total 176.4 22.1 264.3
French Third Republic France 39.8 0.5 138.7
French colonies 48.3 10.7 31.5
Total 88.1 11.2 138.7
British Empire United Kingdom 46.0 0.3 226.4
British colonies 380.2 13.5 257
British Dominions 19.9 19.5 77.8
Total 446.1 33.3 561.2
Empire of Japan Japan 55.1 0.4 76.5
Japanese colonies[10] 19.1 0.3 16.3
Total 74.2 0.7 92.8
Yugoslav states[11] 7.0 0.2 7.2
Liberia 1.5 0.1 0.9
Second Wave (1915–16)
Kingdom of Italy Italy 35.6 0.3 91.3
Italian colonies 2.0 2.0 1.3
Total 37.6 2.3 92.6
Kingdom of Portugal Portugal 6.0 0.1 7.4
Portuguese colonies 8.7 2.4 5.2
Total 14.7 2.5 12.6
Kingdom of Romania 7.7 0.1 11.7
Third Wave (1917–18)
United States United States 96.5 7.8 511.6
overseas dependencies[12] 9.8 1.8 10.6
Total 106.3 9.6 522.2
Central American states[13] 9.0 0.6 10.6
Brazil 25.0 8.5 20.3
Kingdom of Greece 4.8 0.1 7.7
Siam 8.4 0.5 7.0
Republic of China 441.0 11.1 243.7
Aggregate statistics of the Allied Powers (in 1913)[14]
Population
(millions)
Territory
(million sq. km)
GDP
($ billion)
November 1914
Allies, total 793.3 76.5 1,096.5
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.6
November 1916
Allies, total 793.3 67.5 1,213.4
UK, France and Russia only 259.0 22.6 622.6
November 1918
Allies, total 1,271.7 80.8 1,760.5
Percentage of world 70% 61% 64%
UK, France and USA only 182.0 8.7 876.6
Percentage of world 10% 7% 32%
Central Powers[15] 156.1 6.0 383.9
World, 1913 1,810.3 133.5 2,733.9

Major affiliated state combatants

Woodrow Wilson in Versailles

United Kingdom

British soldiers in a trench during the Battle of the Somme in 1916.
British battlecruiser HMS Lion hit by shell fire during the Battle of Jutland.
British Sopwith Camel fighter aircraft during the war.

War justifications

In response to Germany's invasion of neutral Belgium, the United Kingdom declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.[16] The British Empire held several semi-autonomous dominions that were automatically brought into the war effort as a result of the British declaration of war, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Newfoundland, and South Africa.

Colonies and dependencies

In Europe

Gibraltar, Cyprus and Malta were British dependencies in Europe.

In Africa

The UK held several colonies, protectorates, and semi-autonomous dependencies at the time of World War I. In Eastern Africa the East Africa Protectorate, Nyasaland, both Northern and Southern Rhodesia, the Uganda Protectorate, were involved in conflict with German forces in German East Africa. In Western Africa, the colonies of Gold Coast and Nigeria were involved in military actions against German forces from Togoland and Kamerun. In Southwestern Africa, the semi-autonomous dominion of South Africa was involved in military actions against German forces in German South-West Africa.

In North America

Canada and Newfoundland were two semi-autonomous dominions during the war that made major military contributions to the British war effort.

Other British dependent territories in the Americas included: British Honduras, the Falkland Islands, British Guiana, and Jamaica.

In Asia

The UK held large possessions in Asia, including the Indian Empire which was an assortment of British imperial authorities in the territory now defined as India, Bangladesh, Burma, and Pakistan.

Other British territories at the time included: British Malaya – referring to several Malay states under British control as a result of the Straits Settlements; North Borneo; and Hong Kong.

In Oceania

Australia and New Zealand were two autonomous dominions of the UK in Oceania during the war. Australia had become an independent nation state in 1901. Having strong cultural ties with the United Kingdom, declared war on Germany on 4 August 1914.

Russia

Russian artillery firing.

In response to Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia in 1914, Russian government officials denounced the Austro-Hungarian invasion as an "ignoble war" on a "weak country".[17] Russian government official Nikolaĭ N. Shebeko stated: "the attack on Serbia by a powerful empire such as Austria, supposedly in order to defend its existence, cannot be understood by anyone in my country; it has been considered simply as a means of delivering a death-blow to Serbia."[17] Russia held close diplomatic relations with Serbia, and Russian foreign minister Sergey Sazonov suspected the events were a conspiracy between Austria-Hungary and Germany to expel Russian influence in the Balkans.[17] On 30 July 1914, Russia enacted a general mobilization. The day after general mobilization was enacted, Austria-Hungary's ally Germany declared war on Russia prior to expected Russian intervention against Austria-Hungary.

Following a raid by Ottoman warships on the Russian port of Odessa, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire in November 1914.[18]

France

French soldiers crossing a river on their way to Verdun during the Battle of Verdun.

After Germany declared war on Russia, France with its alliance with Russia prepared a general mobilization in expectation of war. On 3 August 1914, Germany declared war on France.[19]

Japan

Japanese soldiers landing in Tsingtao during the Siege of Tsingtao in which Allied forces seized control of Germany's Kiautschou Bay concession.

Japan declared war on Germany after it did not accept an ultimatum sent by Japan to Germany, demanding that Germany extinguish its title to the Kiautschou Bay concession and restore that territory to China.[20] The Japanese government appealed to the Japanese public that Japan was not merely entering a "European War" on behalf of European powers, but that Japan was fighting on behalf of Asians against a belligerent European power, Germany, that Japan identified as the "source of evil in the Far East".[20] Thus as a result of this, Japan was following through with the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.[20]

Italy

Italian alpine troops.

Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance alongside Germany and Austria-Hungary since the 1880s, however the Triple Alliance stipulated that all parties must be consulted in the event of one country engaging in war and Italy was not informed of this.[21] As such Italy claimed that it was not obligated to join their war effort.[21] Italy's relations with Germany and Austria-Hungary in contrast to the Allies were additionally affected by the fact that in 1913, Britain supplied Italy with 90 percent of its annual imports of coal.[21] The war effort of the Central Powers meant that Germany and Austria-Hungary were using their coal supplies for the war, and little was available to be exported to Italy.[21] Italy initially attempted to pursue neutrality from 1914 to 1915.[21]

After diplomatic negotiations, Britain and France convinced Italy to join the war effort with promises that Italy would gain favourable territorial concessions from the Central Powers, including Italian-populated territories of Austria-Hungary.[22] Italy ordered mobilization on 22 May 1915, and issued an ultimatum to Austria-Hungary, and then declared war on Austria-Hungary, though it did not declare war on Germany.[22]

Other affiliated state combatants

Belgium

Belgium had declared its neutrality when the war began, but Germany disregarded Belgium's neutrality and invaded the country in order to launch an offensive against the French capital of Paris. As a result Belgium became a member of the Allies.

Brazil

Brazilian soldiers in World War I.

Brazil entered the war in 1917 after the United States intervened on the basis of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare sinking its merchant ships, which Brazil also cited as a reason to enter the war fighting against Germany and the Central Powers.

Montenegro

Montenegro had very close cultural and political connections with Serbia and had cooperated with Serbia in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. Montenegro joined the war against Austria-Hungary.

Nejd and Hasa

The Emirate of Nejd and Hasa agreed to enter the war as an ally of Britain in the Treaty of Darin on December 26, 1915.[23]

Serbia

Serbian soldiers during World War I.

Serbia was invaded by Austria-Hungary after Austria-Hungary placed a stringent ultimatum to the Serbian government demanding full compliance to an Austro-Hungarian investigation of complicity by the Serbian government in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand. Serbia agreed to most of Austria-Hungary's demands but because it did not fully comply, Austria-Hungary invaded.

Serbia had the diplomatic support of Russia, and both Serbia and Russia resented Austria-Hungary's absorption of Bosnia and Herzegovina that held a substantial Serb population. Serbia had expanded in size through its actions in the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913 when the Ottoman Empire's control in the Balkans collapsed.

During the war, Serbia justified the war as being the result of Austro-Hungarian imperialism towards Serbs and South Slavs, Serbia cooperated with Yugoslavists including the Yugoslav Committee who sought pan-South-Slav unification, particularly through liberating South Slavs from Austria-Hungary. In the Corfu Declaration in 1917, the Serbian government officially declared its intention to form a state of Yugoslavia.

The first two allied victories in the war were won by the Serbian army, on the mountains of Cer and Kolubara, in western Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian army was expelled from the country, suffering heavy losses. Serbia suffered great losses during the war, almost 50% of all men and around 30% of its entire population were killed. On July 28, 1918, the Serbian flag was raised at American public buildings, including the White House, on the order of President Woodrow Wilson as a sign of recognition for Serbia's resistance against the Central Powers.[24]

Idrisid Emirate of Asir

The Idrisid Emirate of Asir participated in the Arab revolt. Its Emir, Muhammad ibn Ali al-Idrisi, signed an agreement with the British and joined the Allies in May 1915.

Major co-belligerent state combatants

United States

The United States declared war on Germany in 1917 on the grounds that Germany violated U.S. neutrality by attacking international shipping with its unrestricted submarine warfare campaign.[4] The remotely connected Zimmermann Telegram of the same period, within which the Germans promised to help Mexico regain some of its territory lost to the U.S nearly eight decades before, was also a contributing factor. The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power," rather than a formal ally of France and the United Kingdom, in order to avoid "foreign entanglements."[5] Although the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria severed relations with the United States, neither declared war.[6]

Non-state combatants

Four non-state combatants, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:

Leaders

Serbia

Montenegro

Russia

Belgium

France

British Empire

Dominion of Canada

Commonwealth of Australia

Empire of India

Union of South Africa

New Zealand

Dominion of Newfoundland

Japan

Italy

Romania

Greece

  • Eleftherios Venizelos: Prime minister of Greece after 13 June 1917.
  • Constantin I: King of Greece, he retired from the throne, without formally resigning.
  • George: Crown Prince of Greece, designated King after his father retired form the throne, he refused to become the new king and followed his father in exile.
  • Alexander: King of Greece, he became King of Greece after his father and brother retired from the throne.
  • Panagiotis Danglis: Greek general in the Hellenic Army.

United States

The use of naval convoys to transport U.S. troops to France, 1917.

Portugal

The Siamese Expeditionary Forces in Paris, 1919.

Siam (Thailand)

See main Article: Siam in World War I

Brazil

See main Article: Brazil during World War I

  • Venceslau BrásPresident of Brazil
  • Admiral Pedro Frontin, Chief of DNOG (Brazilian Expeditionary Fleet)
  • General Napoleão Felipe Aché, Chief of Brazilian Military Mission in France (1918–1919)
    • M.D. Nabuco Gouveia – Chief of Brazilian Military Medical Commission

Personnel and casualties

A pie-chart showing the military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914–1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties.)

Allied power Mobilized personnel Military Fatalities Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia 412,953 61,928[26] 152,171 214,099 52%
Belgium 267,000 38,172[27] 44,686 82,858 31%
Canada 628,964 64,944[28] 149,732 214,676 34%
France 8,410,000 1,397,800[29] 4,266,000 5,663,800 67%
Greece 230,000 26,000[30] 21,000 47,000 20%
India 1,440,437 74,187[31] 69,214 143,401 10%
Italy 5,615,000 651,010[32] 953,886 1,604,896 29%
Japan 800,000 415[33] 907 1,322 <1%
Monaco 80[34] 8[34] 0 8[34] 10%
Montenegro 50,000 3,000 10,000 13,000 26%
Nepal 200,000[35] 30,670 21,009 49,823 25%
New Zealand 128,525 18,050[36] 41,317 59,367 46%
Portugal 100,000 7,222[37] 13,751 20,973 21%
Romania 750,000 250,000[38] 120,000 370,000 49%
Russia 12,000,000 1,811,000[39] 4,950,000 6,761,000 56%
Serbia 707,343 275,000[40] 133,148 408,148 58%
Siam 1,284 19 0 19 2%
South Africa 136,070 9,463[41] 12,029 21,492 16%
United Kingdom 6,211,922 886,342[42] 1,665,749 2,552,091 41%
United States 4,355,000 116,708[43] 205,690 322,398 7%
Total 42,244,409 5,741,389 12,925,833 18,744,547 49%

Summary of Declarations of War

The following table shows the timeline of the several declarations of war among the belligerent powers. Entries on a yellow background show severed diplomatic relations only, not actual declarations of war. Unless stated otherwise, declarations of war by and on the United Kingdom include de facto declarations by and on other members of the British Empire.

Date Declarer On
1914
28 July Austria-Hungary Serbia
30 July Russia Austria-Hungary
1 August Germany Russia
3 August Germany France
4 August Germany Belgium
United Kingdom Germany
5 August Montenegro Austria-Hungary
6 August Austria-Hungary Russia
Serbia Germany
9 August Montenegro Germany
11 August France Austria-Hungary
12 August United Kingdom Austria-Hungary
22 August Austria-Hungary Belgium
23 August Japan Germany
25 August Japan Austria-Hungary
1 November Russia Ottoman Empire
2 November Serbia Ottoman Empire
3 November Montenegro Ottoman Empire
5 November United Kingdom
France
Ottoman Empire
1915
23 May Italy Austria-Hungary
3 June San Marino Austria-Hungary
21 August Italy Ottoman Empire
14 October Bulgaria Serbia
15 October United Kingdom
Montenegro
Bulgaria
16 October France Bulgaria
19 October Italy
Russia
Bulgaria
1916
9 March Germany Portugal
15 March Austria-Hungary Portugal
27 August Romania Austria-Hungary
Italy Germany
28 August Germany Romania
30 August Ottoman Empire Romania
1 September Bulgaria Romania
1917
6 April United States Germany
7 April Cuba Germany
10 April Bulgaria United States
13 April Bolivia Germany
20 April Ottoman Empire United States
2 July Greece Germany
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Bulgaria
22 July Siam Germany
Austria-Hungary
4 August Liberia Germany
14 August China Germany
Austria-Hungary
6 October Peru Germany
7 October Uruguay Germany
26 October Brazil Germany[44]
7 December United States Austria-Hungary
7 December Ecuador Germany
10 December Panama Austria-Hungary
16 December Cuba Austria-Hungary
1918
23 April Guatemala Germany
8 May Nicaragua Germany
Austria-Hungary
23 May Costa Rica Germany
12 July Haiti Germany
19 July Honduras Germany
10 November Romania Germany

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Karel Schelle, The First World War and the Paris Peace Agreement, GRIN Verlag, 2009, p. 24
  2. ^ First World War.com – Feature Articles – The Causes of World War One
  3. ^ The Treaty of Sèvres, 1920
  4. ^ a b US Declaration of War
  5. ^ a b Tucker&Roberts pp. 1232, 1264
  6. ^ a b Tucker&Roberts p. 1559
  7. ^ Perry (2004), p.xiii
  8. ^ Griffiths, William R. (1986). Thomas E. Griess, ed. The Great War. Wayne, NJ: Avery Publishing Group. ISBN 0-89529-312-9. Page 163
  9. ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-03-16. 
  10. ^ Korea, Formosa, Kwantung and Sakhalin
  11. ^ Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia-Hercegovina
  12. ^ As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the dependencies
  13. ^ Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
  14. ^ S.N. Broadberry; Mark Harrison (2005). The Economics of World War I. illustrated. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. Retrieved 2015-03-16. 
  15. ^ Germany (and colonies), Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria
  16. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1562.
  17. ^ a b c Jelavich, Barbara. Russia's Balkan Entanglements, 1806–1914. P262
  18. ^ Afflerbach, Holger; David Stevenson, David. An Improbable War: The Outbreak of World War 1 and European Political Culture. Berghan Books. 2012. P. 293.
  19. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. 2009. P1556.
  20. ^ a b c Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P155.
  21. ^ a b c d e Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194.
  22. ^ a b Hamilton, Richard F; Herwig, Holger H. Decisions for War, 1914–1917. P194-198.
  23. ^  
  24. ^ http://www.politika.rs/rubrike/Tema-nedelje/125-godina-sa-Amerikom/t31701.lt.html
  25. ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  26. ^ Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919–21-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead.
  27. ^ Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." .
  28. ^ Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919–21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead.
  29. ^ France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. -Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919.
  30. ^ Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing, The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease
  31. ^ India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919–21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead
  32. ^ Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data.
  33. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army.
  34. ^ a b c Monaco 11-Novembre : ces Monégasques morts au champ d'honneur | Nice-Matin
  35. ^ Jain, G (1954) India Meets China in Nepal, Asia Publishing House, Bombay P92
  36. ^ New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919–21. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead.
  37. ^ Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW.
  38. ^ Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office". Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.
  39. ^ Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis.
  40. ^ Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis
  41. ^ South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919–21. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead.
  42. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead.
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919–21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK, 507 from "Other colonies" and the Royal Navy (32,287).
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately ; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK.
  43. ^ United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[2], The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead .
  44. ^ Declarations of War, 1914–1918

References

  • ^1 The War Office (2006) [1922]. Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War 1914—1920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press.  
  • ^2 Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press.  
  • ^3 Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland.  
  • ^4 The  
  • ^5 The  
  • ^6 Urlanis Boris (2003) [1971, Moscow]. Wars and Population. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific.  
  • ^7 Huber Michel (1931). La population de la France pendant la guerre, avec un appendice sur Les revenus avant et après la guerre (in French). Paris.  
  • ^8 Bujac Jean Léopold Emile (1930). Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique 1918–1922 (in French). Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle.  
  • ^9 Mortara Giorgio (1925). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra (in Italian). New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.  
  • ^10 Harries Merion, Harries Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun – The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House.  
  • ^11 Clodfelter Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts : A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000 (2nd ed.). London: McFarland.  

Sources

See List of World War I books

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900–1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917–1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)
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