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Grover Cleveland

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Grover Cleveland

wiki/Utah" id="whe_lnki_405" title="Utah">Utah to apply for statehood.[229] Utah joined the Union as the 45th state on January 4, 1896.

1896 election and retirement

Cleveland in 1903 at age 66 by Frederick Gutekunst

Cleveland's agrarian and silverite enemies gained control of the Democratic party in 1896, repudiated his administration and the gold standard, and nominated William Jennings Bryan on a Silver Platform.[230][231] Cleveland silently supported the Gold Democrats' third-party ticket that promised to defend the gold standard, limit government and oppose high tariffs, but he declined their nomination for a third term.[232] The party won only 100,000 votes in the general election, and William McKinley, the Republican nominee, triumphed easily over Bryan.[233] Agrarians nominated Bryan again in 1900. In 1904 the conservatives, with Cleveland's support, regained control of the Democratic Party and nominated Alton B. Parker.[234]

Outgoing President Grover Cleveland, at right, stands nearby as William McKinley is sworn in as president by Chief Justice Melville Fuller.

After leaving the White House on March 4, 1897, Cleveland lived in retirement at his estate, Westland Mansion, in Princeton, New Jersey.[235] For a time he was a trustee of Princeton University, and was one of the majority of trustees who preferred Dean West's plans for the Graduate School and undergraduate living over those of Woodrow Wilson, then president of the university.[236] Cleveland consulted occasionally with President Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909), but was financially unable to accept the chairmanship of the commission handling the Coal Strike of 1902.[237] Cleveland still made his views known in political matters. In a 1905 article in The Ladies Home Journal, Cleveland weighed in on the women's suffrage movement, writing that "sensible and responsible women do not want to vote. The relative positions to be assumed by men and women in the working out of our civilization were assigned long ago by a higher intelligence."[238]

Cleveland's health had been declining for several years, and in the autumn of 1907 he fell seriously ill.[239] In 1908, he suffered a heart attack and died.[239] His last words were "I have tried so hard to do right."[240] He is buried in the Princeton Cemetery of the Nassau Presbyterian Church.[241]

Honors and memorials

In his first term in office, Cleveland sought a summer house to escape the heat and smells of Washington, D.C., near enough the capital. He secretly bought a house, Oak View (or Oak Hill), in a rural upland part of the District of Columbia, in 1886. He sold Oak View upon leaving the White House (the first time); the area is still known as Cleveland Park. The Clevelands are depicted in local murals.[242]

Grover Cleveland Hall at Buffalo State College in Buffalo, New York. Cleveland Hall houses the offices of the college president, vice presidents, and other administrative functions and student services. Cleveland was a member of the first board of directors of the then Buffalo Normal School.[243] Grover Cleveland Middle School in his birthplace, Caldwell, New Jersey, was named for him, as is Grover Cleveland High School in Buffalo, New York, and the town of Cleveland, Mississippi. Mount Cleveland, a volcano in Alaska, is also named after him.[244] In 1895 he became the first U.S. President who was filmed.[245]

Issue of 1923
$1000 Gold Certificate (1934) depicting Grover Cleveland.
The first U. S. postage stamp to honor Cleveland appeared in 1923. This twelve-cent issue accompanied a thirteen-cent stamp in the same definitive series that depicted his old rival Benjamin Harrison. Cleveland's only two subsequent stamp appearances have been in issues devoted to the full roster of U. S. Presidents, released, respectively, in 1938 and 1986.

Cleveland's portrait was on the U.S. $1000 bill of series 1928 and series 1934. He also appeared on the first few issues of the $20 Federal Reserve Notes from 1914. Since he was both the 22nd and 24th president, he was featured on two separate dollar coins released in 2012 as part of the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005.

In 2006, Free New York, a nonprofit and nonpartisan research group, began raising funds to purchase the former Fairfield Library in Buffalo, New York and transform it into the Grover Cleveland Presidential Library & Museum.[246]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Blum, 527
  2. ^ Jeffers, 8–12; Nevins, 4–5; Beito and Beito
  3. ^ McFarland, 11–56
  4. ^ Gould, passim
  5. ^ a b Tugwell, 220–249
  6. ^ Nevins, 4
  7. ^ Nevins, 8–10
  8. ^ Graff, 3–4; Nevins, 8–10
  9. ^ Graff, 3–4
  10. ^ Nevins, 6
  11. ^ Nevins, 9
  12. ^ Graff, 7
  13. ^ Nevins, 10; Graff, 3
  14. ^ Nevins, 11; Graff, 8–9
  15. ^ Nevins, 11
  16. ^ Jeffers, 17
  17. ^ Nevins, 17–19
  18. ^ Tugwell, 14
  19. ^ a b Nevins, 21
  20. ^ Nevins, 18–19; Jeffers, 19
  21. ^ Nevins, 23–27
  22. ^ Nevins, 27–33
  23. ^ Nevins, 31–36
  24. ^ a b Graff, 14
  25. ^ Graff, 14–15
  26. ^ Graff, 15; Nevins, 46
  27. ^ Graff, 14; Nevins, 51–52. Benninsky survived the war.
  28. ^ a b Nevins, 52–53
  29. ^ Nevins, 54
  30. ^ Nevins, 54–55
  31. ^ Nevins, 55–56
  32. ^ Nevins, 56
  33. ^ Tugwell, 26
  34. ^ Nevins, 44–45
  35. ^ Tugwell, 32
  36. ^ a b Nevins, 58
  37. ^ Jeffers, 33
  38. ^ a b Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2014. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
  39. ^ Tugwell, 36
  40. ^ a b c Jeffers, 34; Nevins, 61–62
  41. ^ "The Execution of John Gaffney". The Buffalonian. Retrieved March 27, 2008. 
  42. ^ Jeffers, 36; Nevins, 64
  43. ^ Nevins, 66–71
  44. ^ Nevins, 78
  45. ^ Tugwell, 41
  46. ^ Nevins, 79; Graff, 18–19; Jeffers, 42–45; Welch, 24
  47. ^ Nevins, 79–80; Graff, 18–19; Welch, 24
  48. ^ a b Nevins, 80–81
  49. ^ Nevins, 83
  50. ^ Graff, 19; Jeffers, 46–50
  51. ^ a b Nevins, 84–86
  52. ^ Nevins, 85
  53. ^ Nevins, 86
  54. ^ Tugwell, 58
  55. ^ Nevins, 94–95; Jeffers, 50–51
  56. ^ a b Nevins, 94–99; Graff, 26–27
  57. ^ Tugwell, 68–70
  58. ^ Graff, 26; Nevins, 101–103
  59. ^ Nevins, 103–104
  60. ^ Nevins, 105
  61. ^ Graff, 28
  62. ^ Graff, 35
  63. ^ Graff, 35–36
  64. ^ Nevins, 114–116
  65. ^ a b c Nevins, 116–117
  66. ^ a b Nevins, 117–118
  67. ^ Nevins, 125–126
  68. ^ Tugwell, 77
  69. ^ Tugwell, 73
  70. ^ Nevins, 138–140
  71. ^ a b Nevins, 185–186; Jeffers, 96–97
  72. ^ a b Tugwell, 88
  73. ^ a b c Nevins, 146–147
  74. ^ Nevins, 147
  75. ^ Nevins, 152–153; Graff, 51–53
  76. ^ Nevins, 153
  77. ^ a b Nevins, 154; Graff, 53–54
  78. ^ Tugwell, 80
  79. ^ Summers, passim; Grossman, 31
  80. ^ Tugwell, 84
  81. ^ a b Nevins, 156–159; Graff, 55
  82. ^ Nevins, 187–188
  83. ^ Tugwell, 93
  84. ^ a b Nevins, 159–162; Graff, 59–60
  85. ^ Graff, 59; Jeffers, 111; Nevins, 177, Welch, 34
  86. ^ Tugwell, 90
  87. ^ Tugwell, 91–92
  88. ^ Lachman, Charles (2014). A Secret Life. Skyhorse Publishing. pp. 285–288. 
  89. ^ "Maria Halpin's Affidavit".  
  90. ^ Daily Gazette (Fort Wayne, Indiana) Nov. 1, 1884. p. 5
  91. ^ Topeka Daily Capital (Topeka, Kansas) Nov. 1, 1884. p. 4
  92. ^ "That Scandal".  
  93. ^ Cedar Rapids Evening Gazette, (Cedar Rapids, Iowa). October 31, 1884. p. 3
  94. ^ Welch, 33
  95. ^ Nevins, 170–171
  96. ^ Nevins, 170
  97. ^ Nevins, 181–184
  98. ^ Tugwell, 94–95
  99. ^ a b Leip, David. 1884 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (January 27, 2008)., Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (January 27, 2008).
  100. ^ Graff, 64
  101. ^ Nevins, 208–211
  102. ^ Nevins, 214–217
  103. ^ Graff, 83
  104. ^ Tugwell, 100
  105. ^ Nevins, 238–241; Welch, 59–60
  106. ^ Nevins, 354–357; Graff, 85
  107. ^ Nevins, 217–223; Graff, 77
  108. ^ a b c Nevins, 223–228
  109. ^ Tugwell, 130-134
  110. ^ Graff, 85
  111. ^ Nevins, 326–328; Graff, 83–84
  112. ^ Nevins, 300–331; Graff, 83
  113. ^ See List of United States presidential vetoes
  114. ^ a b Nevins, 331–332; Graff, 85
  115. ^ "Cleveland's Veto of the Texas Seed Bill". The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland. New York: Cassell Publishing Co. 1892. p. 450.  
  116. ^ Jeffers, 157–158
  117. ^ a b Nevins, 201–205; Graff, 102–103
  118. ^ Nevins, 269
  119. ^ Tugwell, 110
  120. ^ Nevins, 268
  121. ^ a b Nevins, 273
  122. ^ Nevins, 277–279
  123. ^ The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland. New York: Cassell Publishing Co. 1892. pp. 72–73.  
  124. ^ a b Nevins, 280–282, Reitano, 46–62
  125. ^ Nevins, 286–287
  126. ^ Nevins, 287–288
  127. ^ Nevins, 290–296; Graff, 87–88
  128. ^ Nevins, 370–371
  129. ^ Nevins, 379–381
  130. ^ Nevins, 383–385
  131. ^ a b Graff, 88–89
  132. ^ Nevins, 205; 404–405
  133. ^ Nevins, 404–413
  134. ^ a b Zakaria, 80
  135. ^ a b Welch, 65–66
  136. ^ Welch, 72
  137. ^ a b Welch, 73
  138. ^ a b c Welch, 70; Nevins, 358–359
  139. ^ Graff, 206–207
  140. ^ a b c d Brodsky, 141–142; Nevins, 228–229
  141. ^ Brodsky, 158; Jeffers, 149
  142. ^ a b Graff, 78
  143. ^ Graff, 79
  144. ^ John Tyler, who married his second wife Julia Gardiner in 1844, was the first
  145. ^ Jeffers, 170–176; Graff, 78–81; Nevins, 302–308; Welch, 51
  146. ^ Graff, 80–81
  147. ^ Daniel J. Meador, "Lamar to the Court: Last Step to National Reunion" Supreme Court Historical Society Yearbook 1986: 27–47. ISSN 0362-5249
  148. ^ Willard L. King, Melville Weston Fuller – Chief Justice Of The United States 1888–1910 (1950)
  149. ^ Nevins, 445–450
  150. ^ a b Graff, 90–91
  151. ^ Tugwell, 166
  152. ^ Nevins, 418–420
  153. ^ Nevins, 423–427
  154. ^ a b Leip, David. 1888 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (February 18, 2008)., Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (February 18, 2008).
  155. ^ Nevins, 435–439; Jeffers, 220–222
  156. ^ Nevins, 443–449
  157. ^ Nevins, 448
  158. ^ Tugwell, 175
  159. ^ Nevins, 450; Graff, 99–100
  160. ^ Tugwell, 168
  161. ^ Graff, 102–105; Nevins, 465–467
  162. ^ Graff, 104–105; Nevins, 467–468
  163. ^ Nevins, 470–471
  164. ^ Nevins, 468–469
  165. ^ a b Nevins, 470–473
  166. ^ Tugwell, 182
  167. ^ Graff, 105; Nevins, 492–493
  168. ^ William DeGregorio, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents, Gramercy 1997
  169. ^ "U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Adlai Ewing Stevenson, 23rd Vice President (1893–1897)". Senate.gov. Retrieved May 30, 2011. 
  170. ^ Nevins, 498
  171. ^ Calhoun, 149
  172. ^ Nevins, 499
  173. ^ Graff, 106–107; Nevins, 505–506
  174. ^ Graff, 108
  175. ^ Tugwell, 184–185
  176. ^ Leip, David. 1892 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (February 22, 2008)., Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (February 22, 2008).
  177. ^ Graff, 114
  178. ^ a b Nevins, 526–528
  179. ^ Nevins, 524–528, 537–540. The vote was 239 to 108.
  180. ^ Tugwell, 192–195
  181. ^ Welch, 126–127
  182. ^ Timberlake, Richard H. (1993). Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History. University of Chicago Press. p. 179.  
  183. ^ Festus P. Summers, William L. Wilson and Tariff Reform: A Biography (1974)
  184. ^ Nevins, 567; the vote was 204 to 140
  185. ^ a b c Nevins, 564–566; Jeffers, 285–287
  186. ^ Lambert, 213–15
  187. ^ The income tax component of the Wilson-Gorman Act was partially ruled unconstitutional in 1895. See Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co.
  188. ^ Nevins, 577–578
  189. ^ Nevins, 585–587; Jeffers, 288–289
  190. ^ James B. Hedges (1940), "North America", in William L. Langer, ed., An Encyclopedia of World History, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Part V, Section G, Subsection 1c, p. 794.
  191. ^ Congressional Research Service (2004), The Constitution of the United States: Analysis and Interpretation—Analysis of Cases Decided by the Supreme Court of the United States to June 28, 2002, Washington: Government Printing Office, "Fifteenth Amendment", "Congressional Enforcement", "Federal Remedial Legislation", p. 2058.
  192. ^ Nevins, 568
  193. ^ a b c d Graff, 117–118; Nevins, 603–605
  194. ^ Graff, 118; Jeffers, 280–281
  195. ^ Nevins, 611–613
  196. ^ Nevins, 614
  197. ^ Nevins, 614–618; Graff, 118–119; Jeffers, 296–297
  198. ^ Nevins, 619–623; Jeffers, 298–302. See also In re Debs.
  199. ^ Nevins, 628
  200. ^ Nevins, 624–628; Jeffers, 304–305; Graff, 120
  201. ^ Francis Lynde Stetson to Cleveland, October 7, 1894 in Allan Nevins, ed. Letters of Grover Cleveland, 1850–1908 (1933) p. 369
  202. ^ Richard J. Jensen, The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–96 (1971) pp 229–230
  203. ^ a b Nevins, 560
  204. ^ a b Nevins, 549–552; Graff 121–122
  205. ^ a b Nevins, 552–554; Graff, 122
  206. ^ a b Nevins, 558–559
  207. ^ Welch, 174
  208. ^ McWilliams, 25–36
  209. ^ Zakaria, 145–146
  210. ^ Graff, 123–125; Nevins, 633–642
  211. ^ Paul Gibb, "Unmasterly Inactivity? Sir Julian Pauncefote, Lord Salisbury, and the Venezuela Boundary Dispute," Diplomacy & Statecraft, Mar 2005, Vol. 16 Issue 1, pp 23–55
  212. ^ Nelson M. Blake, "Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy," American Historical Review, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Jan. 1942), pp. 259–277 in JSTOR
  213. ^ Graff, 123–25
  214. ^ Nevins, 550, 633–648
  215. ^ a b A Renehan and J C Lowry (July 1995). "The oral tumours of two American presidents: what if they were alive today?". J R Soc Med. 88 (7): 377–383.  
  216. ^ Nevins, 528–529; Graff, 115–116
  217. ^ Nevins, 531–533
  218. ^ Nevins, 529
  219. ^ a b Nevins, 530–531
  220. ^ a b c Nevins, 532–533
  221. ^ Nevins, 533; Graff, 116
  222. ^ a b Keen, William W. (1917). The Surgical Operations on President Cleveland in 1893. G. W. Jacobs & Co.  The lump was preserved and is on display at the Mütter Museum in Philadelphia
  223. ^ Hardig WG. (1974). "Oral surgery and the presidents – a century of contrast". J Oral Surg 32 (7): 490–493.  
  224. ^ Miller JM. (1961). "Stephen Grover Cleveland". Surg Gynecol Obstet 113: 524. 
  225. ^ Brooks JJ, Enterline HT, Aponte GE. (1908). "The final diagnosis of President Cleveland's lesion". Trans Stud Coll Physic Philadelphia 2 (1). 
  226. ^ a b c d Nevins, 569–570
  227. ^ a b c Nevins, 570–571
  228. ^ a b Nevins, 572
  229. ^ Timberlake, Richard H. (1993). Monetary Policy in the United States: An Intellectual and Institutional History. University of Chicago Press. p. 77.  
  230. ^ Nevins, 684–693
  231. ^ R. Hal Williams, Years of Decision: American Politics in the 1890s (1993)
  232. ^ Graff, 128–129
  233. ^ Leip, David. 1896 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (February 23, 2008).
  234. ^ Nevins, 754–758
  235. ^ Graff, 131–133; Nevins, 730–735
  236. ^ Graff, p. 131; Alexander Leitch, A Princeton Companion, Princeton Univ Press, 1978, " Grover Cleveland"
  237. ^ Nevins, 748–751
  238. ^ Ladies Home Journal 22, (October 1905), 7–8
  239. ^ a b Graff, 135–136; Nevins, 762–764
  240. ^ Jeffers, 340; Graff, 135. Nevins makes no mention of these last words.
  241. ^ Roberts, Russell (1995). Discover the Hidden New Jersey. Rutgers University Press.  
  242. ^ See, e.g."A Brief History of Cleveland Park". Cleveland Park Historical Society. Retrieved April 8, 2009. 
  243. ^ "Buffalo State College Cleveland Hall". Retrieved November 11, 2009. 
  244. ^ James D. Myers (1994). "The geology, Geochemistry, and Petrology of the recent Magmatic Phase of the Central and Western Aleutian Arc" (Unpublished manuscript).  
  245. ^ "Grover Cleveland 24th President". Presidentsgraves.com. June 24, 1908. Retrieved October 17, 2012. 
  246. ^ "Grover Cleveland Library". Retrieved March 5, 2008. 

References

Scholarly studies
  • Bard, Mitchell. "Ideology and Depression Politics I: Grover Cleveland (1893–1897)" Presidential Studies Quarterly 1985 15(1): 77–88. ISSN 0360-4918
  • Beito, David T. and Beito, Linda Royster,"Gold Democrats and the Decline of Classical Liberalism, 1896–1900," Independent Review 4 (Spring 2000), 555–75.
  • Blake, Nelson M. "Background of Cleveland's Venezuelan Policy." American Historical Review 1942 47(2): 259–277. in Jstor
  • Blodgett, Geoffrey. "Ethno-cultural Realities in Presidential Patronage: Grover Cleveland's Choices" New York History 2000 81(2): 189–210. ISSN 0146-437X when a German American leader called for fewer appointments of Irish Americans, Cleveland instead appointed more Germans
  • Blodgett, Geoffrey. "The Emergence of Grover Cleveland: a Fresh Appraisal" New York History 1992 73(2): 132–168. ISSN 0146-437X covers Cleveland to 1884
  • Blum, John. The National Experience (1993) ISBN 0-15-500366-6
  • Brodsky, Alan. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Character, (2000). ISBN 0-312-26883-1
  • Calhoun, Charles William (2005). Benjamin Harrison. Macmillan.  
  • DeSantis, Vincent P. "Grover Cleveland: Another Look." Hayes Historical Journal 1980 3(1–2): 41–50. Issn: 0364-5924, argues his energy, honesty, and devotion to duty—much more than his actual accomplishments established his claim to greatness.
  • Dewey, Davis R. National Problems: 1880–1897 (1907), online edition
  • Doenecke, Justus. "Grover Cleveland and the Enforcement of the Civil Service Act" Hayes Historical Journal 1984 4(3): 44–58. ISSN 0364–5924
  • Faulkner, Harold U. Politics, Reform, and Expansion, 1890–1900 (1959), online edition
  • Ford, Henry Jones. The Cleveland Era: A Chronicle of the New Order in Politics (1921), short overview online
  • Gould, Lewis. America in the Progressive Era, 1890–1914 (2001) ISBN 0-582-35671-7
  • Graff, Henry F. Grover Cleveland (2002). ISBN 0-8050-6923-2, short biography by scholar
  • Grossman, Mark, Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power, and Greed (2003) ISBN 1-57607-060-3.
  • Hoffman, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act" Rhetoric & Public Affairs 2002 5(1): 57–77. ISSN 1094–8392
  • Hirsch, Mark D. William C. Whitney, Modern Warwick (1948), biography of key political associate
  • Hoffman, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act" Rhetoric and Public Affairs 2002 5(1): 57–77. in Project MUSE
  • Jeffers, H. Paul, An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland (2000), ISBN 0-380-97746-X.
  • Kelley, Robert, "Presbyterianism, Jacksonianism and Grover Cleveland", "American Quarterly" 1966 18(4): 615–636. in JSTOR
  • Lambert, John R. Arthur Pue Gorman (1953)
  • Lynch, G. Patrick "U.S. Presidential Elections in the Nineteenth Century: Why Culture and the Economy Both Mattered." Polity 35#1 (2002) pp 29–50. in JSTOR, focus on election of 1884
  • McElroy, Robert. Grover Cleveland, the Man and the Statesman: An Authorized Biography (1923) Vol. I, Vol. II, old fashioned narrative
  • McFarland, Gerald W. Mugwumps, morals, & politics, 1884–1920 (1975) ISBN 0-87023-175-8
  • McWilliams, Tennant S., "James H. Blount, the South, and Hawaiian Annexation." Pacific Historical Review 1988 57(1): 25–46. in JSTOR.
  • Merrill, Horace Samuel. Bourbon Leader: Grover Cleveland and the Democratic Party (1957) 228pp
  • Morgan, H. Wayne. From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics, 1877–1896 (1969).
  • Nevins, Allan. Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage (1932) Pulitzer Prize-winning biography. ASIN B000PUX6KQ.
  • Reitano, Joanne R. The Tariff Question in the Gilded Age: The Great Debate of 1888 (1994). ISBN 0-271-01035-5.
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. Rum, Romanism & Rebellion: The Making of a President, 1884 (2000). ISBN 0-8078-4849-2. campaign techniques and issues online edition
  • Tugwell, Rexford Guy, Grover Cleveland Simon & Schuster, Inc. (1968).
  • Welch, Richard E. Jr. The Presidencies of Grover Cleveland (1988) ISBN 0-7006-0355-7, scholarly study of the presidential years
  • Wilson, Woodrow, (March 1897): pp. 289–301 onlineAtlantic Monthly Mr. Cleveland as President; Wilson later became president
  • Zakaria, Fareed From Wealth to Power (1999) Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01035-8.
Primary sources
  • Cleveland, Grover. The Writings and Speeches of Grover Cleveland (1892) online edition
  • Cleveland, Grover. Presidential Problems. (1904) online edition
  • Nevins, Allan ed. Letters of Grover Cleveland, 1850–1908 (1933)
  • National Democratic Committee (1896). Campaign Text-book of the National Democratic Party. , handbook of the Gold Democrats, who admired Cleveland
  • Sturgis, Amy H. ed. Presidents from Hayes through McKinley, 1877–1901: Debating the Issues in Pro and Con Primary Documents (2003) online edition
  • Wilson, William L. The Cabinet Diary of William L. Wilson, 1896–1897 (1957) online edition

External links

  • Grover Cleveland: A Resource Guide from the Library of Congress
  • White House website biography of Grover Cleveland
  • Works by Grover Cleveland at Project Gutenberg
  • Audio clips of Cleveland's speeches
  • A picture of Cleveland's Grave Marker in Princeton Cemetery
  • Pictorial Ebook at Google Books on President Cleveland's Florida visit in 1888.
  • Essay on Cleveland and each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
  • Grover Cleveland at C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits
  • , August 6, 2000.An Honest President: The Life and Presidencies of Grover Cleveland interview with H. Paul Jeffers on Booknotes
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