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Peace Corps

Peace Corps
Logo of the United States Peace Corps
Agency overview
Formed March 1, 1961 (1961-03-01)
Headquarters Washington, D.C
Annual budget $379 million (2014 fiscal year)[1]
Agency executive Carrie Hessler-Radelet[2], Director
Website .gov.peacecorpswww

The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government. The stated mission of the Peace Corps includes providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand American culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries. The work is generally related to social and economic development. Each program participant, a Peace Corps Volunteer, is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, who works abroad for a period of two years after three months of training.

Volunteers work with governments, schools, non-profit organizations, non-government organizations, and entrepreneurs in education, hunger business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service.[3]

The program was established by Executive Order 10924, issued by President John F. Kennedy on March 1, 1961, announced by televised broadcast March 2, 1961, and authorized by Congress on September 21, 1961, with passage of the Peace Corps Act (Pub.L. 87–293). The act declares the program's purpose as follows:

To promote world peace and friendship through a Peace Corps, which shall make available to interested countries and areas men and women of the United States qualified for service abroad and willing to serve, under conditions of hardship if necessary, to help the peoples of such countries and areas in meeting their needs for trained manpower.

Between 1961 and 2013, over 215,000 Americans joined the Peace Corps and served in 139 countries.[1]

Contents

  • History 1
    • 1950–1959 1.1
    • 1960–1969 1.2
    • 1970–1999 1.3
    • 2000–present 1.4
  • Current countries 2
  • Initiatives 3
    • Eradicating malaria in Africa 3.1
    • Environment 3.2
    • Peace Corps Response 3.3
    • Education and Languages 3.4
  • Laws governing the Peace Corps 4
    • Executive orders 4.1
    • Laws 4.2
    • Code of Federal Regulations 4.3
    • Limitations on former volunteers 4.4
    • Time limits on employment 4.5
  • Union representation 5
  • Leadership 6
    • Directors 6.1
    • Inspector General 6.2
  • Criticism 7
  • In popular culture 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12

History

1950–1959

John F. Kennedy greets volunteers on August 28, 1961

Following the end of Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. (D-Minnesota), who introduced the first bill to create the Peace Corps in 1957—three years before the University of Michigan speech. In his autobiography The Education of a Public Man, Humphrey wrote,

There were three bills of particular emotional importance to me: the Peace Corps, a disarmament agency, and the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. The President, knowing how I felt, asked me to introduce legislation for all three. I introduced the first Peace Corps bill in 1957. It did not meet with much enthusiasm. Some traditional diplomats quaked at the thought of thousands of young Americans scattered across their world. Many senators, including liberal ones, thought it silly and an unworkable idea. Now, with a young president urging its passage, it became possible and we pushed it rapidly through the Senate. It is fashionable now to suggest that Peace Corps Volunteers gained as much or more, from their experience as the countries they worked. That may be true, but it ought not demean their work. They touched many lives and made them better.[6]
Peace Corps headquarters at 1111 20th Street, NW in downtown Washington, D.C.

Only in 1959, however, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman Henry S. Reuss of Wisconsin proposed a "Point Four Youth Corps". In 1960, he and Senator Richard L. Neuberger of Oregon introduced identical measures calling for a nongovernmental study of the idea's "advisability and practicability". Both the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee endorsed the study, the latter writing the Reuss proposal into the pending Mutual Security legislation. In this form it became law in June 1960. In August the Mutual Security Appropriations Act was enacted, making available US$10,000 for the study, and in November ICA contracted with Maurice Albertson, Andrew E. Rice, and Pauline E. Birky of Colorado State University Research Foundation[7] for the study.[8]

1960–1969

Critics opposed the program. Kennedy's opponent, Richard M. Nixon, predicted it would become a "cult of escapism" and "a haven for draft dodgers."[9][10][11]

Others doubted whether recent graduates had the necessary skills and maturity. The idea was popular among students, however, and Kennedy pursued it, asking respected academics such as Max Millikan and [13] The Peace Corps website answered the question "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps?", acknowledging that the Peace Corps were based on Operation Crossroads Africa founded by Rev. James H. Robinson.[14]

Physical text copy of the Executive Order establishing the Peace Corps
Executive Order 10924

John F. Kennedy's announcement of the establishment of the Peace Corps

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On March 1, 1961, Kennedy signed Bob Hope cut radio and television announcements hailing the program.

A leading Peace Corps critic was U.S. Representative Otto Passman of Louisiana's 5th congressional district, based about Monroe. Critics called Passman "Otto the Terrible" for trying to thwart the program by reducing its funding to minimal levels. Ultimately, it would be President Nixon, who despite his previous skepticism rescued the Peace Corps after 1969 from Passman's congressional knife.[17]

Until about 1967, applicants had to pass a placement test of "general aptitude" (knowledge of various skills needed for Peace Corps assignments) and language aptitude. After an address from Kennedy, who was introduced by Rev. Russell Fuller of Memorial Christian Church, [92]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Fast Facts What Is Peace Corps? Learn About Peace Corps Peace Corps". Retrieved January 22, 2009. 
  2. ^ www.peacecorps.gov Leadership > Acting Director. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
  3. ^ "MS 281 COMPLETION OF SERVICE DATE ADVANCEMENT AND EXTENSION OF SERVICE" (PDF). Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  4. ^ Leamer, Laurence (2001). The Kennedy Men: 1901–1963. HarperCollins.  
  5. ^ "POINT FOUR 'HOE ARMY' SOUGHT BY M'MAHON". The New York Times. January 26, 1952. Retrieved March 19, 2012. 
  6. ^ Humphrey, Hubert H (1991). "The Education of a Public Man".  
  7. ^ a b Lucker, Danica (August 23, 2008). "Ex-volunteers, friends to mark CSU role in birth of Peace Corps : TheRocky.com: Denver News, Business, Homes, Jobs, Cars, & Information". M.rockymountainnews.com. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  8. ^ New Frontiers for American Youth: Perspective on the Peace Corps. Public Affairs Press. 1961. 
  9. ^ a b "Teaching With Documents: Founding Documents of the Peace Corps." National Archives and Records Administration.
  10. ^ a b Megan Gibson. "Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About the Peace Corps" (September 22, 2011). Time.
  11. ^ a b James Tobin. "JFK at the Union: The Unknown Story of the Peace Corps Speech." National Peace Corps Association/University of Michigan.
  12. ^ The Avalon Project (1997). "Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved May 11, 2007. 
  13. ^ June 22, 1962 Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=8730
  14. ^ (2005) "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps". Peace Corps Online.
  15. ^ "Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961)". Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Organization of American Historians". Historycooperative.org. June 1, 2000. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  17. ^ Billy Hathorn, "Otto Passman, Jerry Huckaby, and Frank Spooner: The Louisiana Fifth Congressional District Campaign of 1976", Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, Vol. LIV, No. 3 (Summer 2013), p. 337
  18. ^ "US History – The Peace Corps". Peace Corps Online. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Peace Corps Girl Stirs Anger In Nigeria by Alleging 'Squalor'". New York Times. October 16, 1961. p. 10. 
  20. ^ a b c "The infamous Peace Corps postcard". Peace Corps Writers. 2007. Retrieved May 11, 2007. 
  21. ^ "Postcard to Friend Reporting 'Primitive Living' Leads to Protest by Students". New York Times. October 16, 1961. p. 10. 
  22. ^ "RIFT ON PEACE CORPS HEALING IN NIGERIA". New York Times. November 7, 1961. p. 7. 
  23. ^ Yee, Daniel (2005). """Jimmy Carter said his mother's service in the Peace Corps as a nurse when she was 70 years old "was one of the most glorious experiences of her life.. Peace Corps Online. Retrieved May 11, 2007. 
  24. ^ [1],.
  25. ^ Weiss, Philip (May 21, 2005). "Deborah Gardner's death – Murder in the Peace Corps – Dennis Priven". Nymag.com. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  26. ^ Hastings, David, ed., 2004. Geoscientists in the Peace Corps. Geotimes, August 2004.
  27. ^ "Microsoft Word - Fact Sheet National Service 070408 FINAL.doc" (PDF). Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  28. ^ http://feed.vocativ.com/peace-corps-applications-lowest-in-a-decade-doing-good-is-great-but-young-people-want-jobs/
  29. ^ "The Obameter: Double the Peace Corps – Obama promise No. 221:". PolitiFact. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  30. ^ Boston – AP (March 4, 2006). "Peace Corps eyes recruitment of minorities, older Americans, peace, corps, percent – Regional News – WRGB CBS 6 Albany". 42.652579;-73.756232: Cbs6albany.com. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  31. ^ "The Technologies of Peace – | Harvard International Review". Hir.harvard.edu. May 2, 2007. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  32. ^ "United States – Selected Population Profile in the United States (White alone, not Hispanic or Latino)". 2009 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 13, 2010. 
  33. ^ Eden Stiffman (April 8, 2011). "Peace Corps Under Fire". First Response Action. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  34. ^ "History". Michigan Review. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  35. ^ Mike Sheppard (2010). "Violent Crimes Against Peace Corps Volunteers". PeaceCorpsWiki.org. Retrieved May 10, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Peace Corps Gang Rape: Volunteer Says U.S. Agency Ignored Warnings".  
  37. ^ a b peacecorpswiki.org - wiki page last substantially updated at 26 October 2009
  38. ^ peacecorpswiki.org/Category:Country - Peace Corps' sorted list that includes all countries served and formerly served
  39. ^ peacecorps.gov Caribbean
  40. ^ BBC News http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-16300070 . 
  41. ^ peacecorps.gov Central America and Mexico
  42. ^ peacecorps.gov South America
  43. ^ [2]
  44. ^ Eastern Europe and Central Asia
  45. ^ peacecorps.gov North Africa and the Middle East
  46. ^ peacecorps.gov Africa
  47. ^ peacecorps.gov Asia
  48. ^ peacecorps.gov Pacific Islands
  49. ^ Hessler-Radelet, Carrie; Ziemer, Tim; (2013-04-24)"Peace Corps Volunteers Extend Malaria Efforts to Villages and Towns Across Africa", Huffington Post. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  50. ^ "Africa: Prevention Focus of Peace Corps' World Malaria Day Events", AllAfrica.com. 2013-04-26. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
  51. ^ "Environment | What Do Volunteers Do? | Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. December 15, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  52. ^ "Environment Education or Awareness | What Do Volunteers Do? | Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. September 30, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  53. ^ "Forestry | What Do Volunteers Do? | Peace Corps". Peacecorps.gov. September 30, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  54. ^ Peace Corps Hotline. "Crisis Corps: Opportunity to serve again" by Melinda Bridges. November 1, 2002. (PDF)
  55. ^ Arnold, David. "Helping Rwanda." WorldView, Spring 1995, Vol. 8, No. 2. pg. 21
  56. ^ "Peace Corps "Peace Corps Press Release" November 19, 2007". Peacecorps.gov. November 19, 2007. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  57. ^ "Coverdell worldwise schools". Peace Corps. Retrieved 20 Sep 2013. 
  58. ^ Peters,Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "John F. Kennedy: "Executive Order 10924 - Establishment and Administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State," March 1, 1961". The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  59. ^ Peters,Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "John F. Kennedy: "Executive Order 11041," August 6, 1962". The American Presidency Project. University of California - Santa Barbara. Retrieved 7 October 2013. 
  60. ^ "Executive Orders". Archives.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  61. ^ "Executive Orders". Archives.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  62. ^ 22 U.S.C. §§ 2501–2523
  63. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 94th Congress (1975–1976) – H.R.6334 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  64. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 95th Congress (1977–1978) – H.R.11877 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 96th Congress (1979–1980) – H.R.6790 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  66. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 97th Congress (1981–1982) – S.1196 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  67. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 99th Congress (1985–1986) – S.960 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  68. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 99th Congress (1985–1986) – H.R.3838 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  69. ^ "Bill Summary & Status – 102nd Congress (1991–1992) – S.3309 – THOMAS (Library of Congress)". Thomas.loc.gov. October 28, 1992. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  70. ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=105_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ12.pdf
  71. ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=106_cong_public_laws&docid=f:publ030.pdf
  72. ^ "Enlisted Assignments and Utilization Management, Army Regulation 614–200" (PDF). Department of the Army. February 26, 2009. Retrieved August 1, 2009. 
  73. ^ "United States Code: Browse Titles Page". Frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  74. ^ http://www.peacecorps.gov/resources/media/press/2109/
  75. ^ http://www.peacecorps.gov/about/leadership/depdir/
  76. ^ Office of the Inspector General. "Major Functions of OIG". Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  77. ^ "H. David Kotz Named New Inspector General at SEC (SEC)". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. December 5, 2007. Retrieved February 10, 2013. 
  78. ^ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2008/04/21/think_again_the_peace_corps
  79. ^ http://peacecorpsworldwide.org/babbles/2010/11/12/crime/
  80. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/Blotter/raped-peace-corps-volunteer/story?id=13537674
  81. ^ Graves, Lucia (May 11, 2011). "Peace Corps Volunteers Speak Out About Rape, Violence". Huffington Post. 
  82. ^ http://womensissues.about.com/b/2011/01/28/is-the-peace-corps-dangerous-for-women.htm
  83. ^ http://www.usembassy.it/pdf/other/RS21168.pdf
  84. ^ http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1986/09/smith.html
  85. ^ http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2003/12globalgovernance_rieffel.aspx
  86. ^ http://www.fff.org/freedom/fd1104c.asp
  87. ^ "Peace Corps Volunteers Speak Out on Rape". The New York Times. May 10, 2011. 
  88. ^ http://boingboing.net/2011/05/11/peace-corps-voluntee.html
  89. ^ New York Daily News. "Disappointed Diallo ma" by Nicole Bode. November 27, 2006. The original link is dead. An archival link is available here.
  90. ^ a b Jimi Sir an American Peace Corps volunteer in Nepal" December 18, 2004""". Jimisir.com. Retrieved October 16, 2011. 
  91. ^ Miami Herald. "Popular film revives Peace Corps rumors: The top movie in Colombia is about the origins of the cocaine trade with an unexpected villain: the U.S. Peace Corps." by Steven Dudley. November 6, 2004. Archive link.
  92. ^ Amigos de Bolivia y Peru. "Sacrificial Llama? The Expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971" by James F. Siekmeier. The original story is a dead link. An archival copy is available here.

Further reading

  • Dillon Banerjee (2000). So You Want to Join the Peace Corps: What to Know Before You Go. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California.
  • The Peace Corps Forum Online collaborative resource for the overall Peace Corps Community
  • Czernek, Andrew (2012). Summary of studies done of returned Peace Corps volunteers (RPCVs)
  • Jahn, GC (1992). "Entomology with the Peace Corps in Thailand." American Entomologist 38(1):10–11.
  • Travis Hellstrom (2010). Unofficial Peace Corps Volunteer Handbook Written by Peace Corps Volunteers.
  • Peace Corps Writers. "A Bibliography of Writings by Returned Peace Corps Volunteers by Countries of Service" Peace Corps Writers.
  • In March 2011, the VOA Special English service of the Voice of America broadcast a 15-minute program on the Peace Corps and its 50th anniversary. A transcript and MP3 of the program, intended for English learners, can be found at "Peace Corps at 50: Same Mission of Aid, Just Smaller".
  • Lihosit, Lawrence F. 2011 Peace Corps Chronology; 1961-2010.iUniverse. Bloomington, IN.
  • Moseley, W.G. and P. Laris. 2008. “West African Environmental Narratives and Development-Volunteer Praxis.” Geographical Review. 98(1): 59–81.
  • Moseley, W.G. 2011. “What I Tell My Students.” In: Barlow, A (ed). One Hand Does Not Catch a Buffalo: 50 Years of Amazing Peace Corps Stories. Volume One: Africa. Pp. 68–74.

External links

  • Official website
  • Peace Corps in the Federal Register
  • National Peace Corps Association
  • The Peace Corps Forum Online collaborative resource for the overall Peace Corps Community
  • Peace Corps Journals First-person archives of Peace Corps stories from volunteers in the field.
  • Peace Corps Wiki Collaborative institutional memory; the "WorldHeritage" of Peace Corps with 6,944 pages written and edited by (R)PCVs and Friends of Peace Corps from around the world.
  • Violent Crimes Against Peace Corps Volunteers 1989 – 2010 (.pdf) (As reported in the Office of Inspector General’s Semiannual Reports to Congress)
  • First Response Action (Advocates for a stronger Peace Corps response for Volunteers who are survivors or victims of physical and sexual violence)
  • Moseley, W.G. 2008. “Let’s not pull back on the Peace Corps.” Minneapolis StarTribune. Dec 11
  • Letter from JFK Welcoming the First Peace Corps Volunteers, May 1961 Shapell Manuscript Foundation
  • The Peace Corps: Current Issues Congressional Research Service
In the 1969 film,

The Peace Corps has also been documented on film and examined more seriously and in more depth. The 2006 documentary film Death of Two Sons, directed by Micah Schaffer, juxtaposes the deaths of Amadou Diallo, a Guinean-American who was gunned down by four New York City policemen with 41 bullets, and Peace Corps volunteer Jesse Thyne who lived with Amadou's family in Guinea and died in a car crash there.[89] Jimi Sir, released in 2007, is a documentary portrait of volunteer James Parks' experiences as a high school science, math and English teacher during the last 10 weeks of his service in Nepal.[90] James speaks Nepali fluently and shows a culture where there are no roads, vehicles, electricity, plumbing, telephone or radio.[90] The movie El Rey, directed and written by Antonio Dorado in 2004, attacks corrupt police, unscrupulous politicians and half-hearted revolutionaries but also depicts the urban legend of Peace Corps Volunteers "training" native Colombians how to process coca leaves into cocaine.[91]

In popular culture, the Peace Corps has been used as a comedic plot device in such movies as Airplane!, Christmas with the Kranks, Shallow Hal, and Volunteers or used to set the scene for a historic era, as when Frances "Baby" Houseman tells the audience she plans to join the Peace Corps in the introduction to the movie Dirty Dancing.

Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention have a song named "Who Needs the Peace Corps?" on their 1968 album We're Only in It for the Money.

In popular culture

BoingBoing editor Xeni Jardin describes criticism of the agency's response to assault: "A growing number of ex-Peace Corps volunteers are speaking out about having survived rape and other forms of sexual assault while assigned overseas. They say the agency ignored their concerns for safety or requests for relocation, and tried to blame rape victims for their attacks. Their stories, and support from families and advocates, are drawing attention from lawmakers and promises of reform from the agency". Among 8,655 volunteers there are on average 22 Peace Corps women reported being the victims of rape or attempted rape each year.[87][88]

In a critique by The Future of Freedom Foundation,[86] James Bovard mixes history of the Peace Corps with current interpretations. He writes that in the 1980s, "The Peace Corps’s world-saving pretensions were a joke on American taxpayers and Third World folks who expected real help." He goes on to criticize the difference in rhetoric and action of Peace Corps volunteers, even attacking its establishment as "the epitome of emotionalism in American politics." Using snippets of reports, accounts of those in countries affected by the Peace Corps and even concluded that at one point "some Peace Corps agricultural efforts directly hurt Third World poor." At the end of the article, Bovard noted that all Peace Corps volunteers he had talked with conceded they have not helped foreigners ... but he acknowledges that "Some Peace Corps volunteers, like some Americans who volunteer for religion missions abroad, have truly helped foreigners."

In December 2003, a report by the Brookings Institution praised the Peace Corps but proposed changes.[85] These include relabeling Peace Corps volunteers in certain countries, greater host country ownership, reverse volunteers (have volunteers from the host country in the U.S.), and multilateral volunteers. The Brookings Institution wrote that a mandatory "one-year service commitment [for the Baby Boom generation] could make the Peace Corps more attractive to older Americans, possibly combined with the option of returning to the same site or country after a three-month break" and customized placement to a specific country would increase the amount of people volunteering.

The author suggests that "the poor should be encouraged to organize a power base to gain more leverage with the powers-that-be" by the Peace Corps and that "The Peace Corps is the epitome of Kennedy's Camelot mythology. It is a tall order to expect a small program appended to an immense superpower, to make a difference, but it is a goal worth striving for."

In the Reagan Administration, in 1986, an article in the Multinational Monitor looked critically at the Peace Corps.[84] On a positive note, the writer praises the Corps for aspects saying that it is "not in the business of transferring massive economic resources. Rather it concentrates on increasing productivity and encouraging self-reliance in villages that are often ignored by large-scale development agencies," and notes the "heavy emphasis on basic education" by the Corps. "Many returned volunteers complain that the Peace Corps does little to promote or make use of their rich experiences once they return...[A] Peace Corps volunteer is sent in...[to] relieve...the local government from having to develop policies that assure equitable distribution of health care...During the early years there were many failures in structure and programming...Some critics charge that the Peace Corps is only a somewhat ineffective attempt to counter damage done to the U.S. image abroad by its aggressive military and its unscrupulous businesses...Many observers and some returned volunteers charge that, in addition to public relations for the United States, Peace Corps programs serve to legitimize dictators...When he began evaluating the Corps in the 1960s, Charlie Peters found "they were training volunteers to be junior diplomats. Giving them a course in American studies, world affairs and communism...Although it seems unlikely that the Peace Corps is used in covert operations, wittingly or not it is often used in conjunction with U.S. military interests...In a review of the Peace Corps in March the House Select Committee on Hunger praised the agency for effective work in the areas of agriculture and conservation, while recommending that the Corps expand its African Food Systems Initiative, increase the number of volunteers in the field, recruit more women, and move to depoliticize country dictatorships."

Critics and criticisms of Peace Corps include Robert L. Strauss of Foreign Policy.,[78] an article by a former volunteer describing assaults on volunteers from 1992 to 2010,[79] an ABC news report on 20/20,[80] an Huffington Post article on former Peace Corps volunteers speaking out on rapes,[81] About.com's article on rape and assault in the Peace Corps,[82] and a Congressional Research Service report titled "The Peace Corps: Current Issues".[83]

Criticism

From 2006–07, H. David Kotz was the Inspector General.[77]

Audit – Auditors review functional activities of the Peace Corps, such as contract compliance and financial and program operations, to ensure accountability and to recommend improved levels of economy and efficiency;
Evaluations – Evaluators analyze the management and program operations of the Peace Corps at both overseas posts and domestic offices. They identify best practices and recommend program improvements and ways to accomplish Peace Corps' mission and strategic goals.
Investigations – Investigators respond to allegations of criminal or administrative wrongdoing by Peace Corps Volunteers, Peace Corps personnel, including experts and consultants, and by those who do business with the Peace Corps, including contractors.[76]

The Peace Corps Office of Inspector General is authorized by law to review all programs and operations of the Peace Corps. The OIG is an independent entity within the Peace Corps. The inspector general (IG) reports directly to the Peace Corps Director. In addition, the IG reports to Congress semiannually with data on OIG activities. The OIG serves as the law enforcement arm of the Peace Corps and works closely with the Department of State, the Department of Justice, and other federal agencies OIG has three sections to conduct its functions:

Inspector General

Director Service Dates Appointed by Notes
1 R. Sargent Shriver 1961–1966 Kennedy President Kennedy appointed Shriver three days after signing the executive order. Volunteers arrived in five countries during 1961. In just under six years, Shriver developed programs in 55 countries with more than 14,500 volunteers.
2 Jack Vaughn 1966–1969 Johnson Vaughn improved marketing, programming, and volunteer support as large numbers of former volunteers joined the staff. He also promoted volunteer assignments in conservation, natural resource management, and community development.
3 Joseph Blatchford 1969–1971 Nixon Blatchford served as head of the new ACTION agency, which included the Corps. He created the Office of Returned Volunteers to help volunteers serve in their communities at home, and initiated New Directions, a program emphasizing volunteer skills.
4 Kevin O'Donnell 1971–1972 Nixon O'Donnell's appointment was the first for a former Peace Corps country director (Korea, 1966–70). He fought budget cuts, and believed strongly in a non-career Peace Corps.
5 Donald Hess 1972–1973 Nixon Hess initiated training of volunteers in the host country where they would eventually serve, using host country nationals. The training provided more realistic preparation, and costs dropped for the agency. Hess also sought to end the down-sizing of the Peace Corps.
6 Nicholas Craw 1973–1974 Nixon Craw sought to increase the number of volunteers in the field and to stabilize the agency's future. He introduced a goal-setting measurement plan, the Country Management Plan, which gained increased Congressional support and improved resource allocation across the 69 participating countries.
7 John Dellenback 1975–1977 Ford Dellenback improved volunteer health care available. He emphasized recruiting generalists. He believed in committed applicants even those without specific skills and instead training them for service.
8 Carolyn R. Payton 1977–1978 Carter Payton was the first female director and the first African American. She focused on improving volunteer diversity.
9 Richard F. Celeste 1979–1981 Carter Celeste focused on the role of women in development and increased women and minority participation, particularly for staff positions. He invested heavily in training, including the development of a worldwide core curriculum.
10 Loret Miller Ruppe 1981–1989 Reagan Ruppe was the longest-serving director and championed women in development roles. She launched the Competitive Enterprise Development program, the Caribbean Basin Initiative, the Initiative for Central America and the African Food Systems Initiative.
11 Paul Coverdell 1989–1991 G.H.W. Bush Coverdell established two programs with a domestic focus. World Wise Schools enabled U.S. students to correspond with overseas volunteers. Fellows/USA assisted Returned Peace Corps volunteers in pursuing graduate studies while serving local communities.
12 Elaine Chao 1991–1992 G.H.W. Bush Chao was the first Asian American director. She expanded Peace Corps' presence in Eastern Europe and Central Asia by establishing the first Peace Corps programs in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and other newly independent countries.
13 Carol Bellamy 1993–1995 Clinton Bellamy was the first RPCV (Returned Peace Corps volunteer) (Guatemala 1963–65) to be director. She reinvigorated relations with former volunteers and launched the Corps' web site.
14 Mark D. Gearan 1995–1999 Clinton Gearan established the Crisis Corps, a program that allows former volunteers to help overseas communities recover from natural disasters and humanitarian crises. He supported expanding the corps and opened new volunteer programs in South Africa, Jordan, Bangladesh and Mozambique.
15 Mark L. Schneider 1999–2001 Clinton Schneider was the second RPCV (El Salvador, 1966–68) to head the agency. He launched an initiative to increase volunteers' participation in helping prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa, and also sought volunteers to work on information technology projects.
16 Gaddi Vasquez 2002–2006 G.W. Bush Gaddi H. Vasquez was the first Hispanic American director. His focus was to increase volunteer and staff diversity. He also led the establishment of a Peace Corps program in Mexico.
17 Ron Tschetter September 2006 – 2008 G.W. Bush The third RPCV to head the agency, Tschetter served in India in the mid-1960s. He launched an initiative known as the "50 and Over," to increase the participation of older men and women.
18 Aaron S. Williams August 2009 – September 2012 Obama Aaron S. Williams became director on August 24, 2009. Mr. Williams is the fourth director to have served as a volunteer. Williams cited personal and family considerations as the reason for his stepping down as Peace Corps Director on September 17, 2012.[74]
19 Carrie Hessler-Radelet September 2012 – present Obama Carrie Hessler-Radelet became acting Director of the Peace Corps in September 2012. Previously, Hessler-Radelet served as deputy director of the Peace Corps from June 23, 2010, until her appointment as acting Director.[75] She was confirmed as Director on June 5, 2014.

In July 2013, President Barack Obama nominated Carrie Hessler-Radelet as the 19th director of the Peace Corps. Since 2010, Hessler-Radelet had served as Peace Corps Deputy Director and Acting Director. From 1981-83, she served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Western Samoa with her husband, Steve. On June 5, 2014 the United States Senate confirmed her nomination.

Directors

Leadership

Non-supervisory domestic employees are represented by the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) Local 3548. The Federal Labor Relations Agency certified the Union on May 11, 1983. About 500 domestic employees are members. The current collective bargaining agreement became effective on April 21, 1995.

Union representation

Peace Corps employees receive time-limited appointments, and most employees are limited to a maximum of five years of employment. This time limit was established to ensure that Peace Corps' staff remain fresh and innovative. A related rule specifies that former employees cannot be re-employed until after the same amount of time that they were employed. Volunteer service is not counted for the purposes of either rule.[73]

Time limits on employment

Former members of the Peace Corps may not be assigned to military intelligence duties for a period of 4 years following Peace Corps service. Furthermore, they are forever prohibited from serving in a military intelligence posting to any country in which they volunteered.[72]

Limitations on former volunteers

The Peace Corps is subject to Federal Regulations as prescribed by public law and executive order and contained in Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations under Chapter 3.

Code of Federal Regulations

  • Pub.L. 87–293, 75 Stat. 612, enacted September 22, 1961 - The Peace Corps Act
  • Pub.L. 88–200, 77 Stat. 359, enacted December 13, 1963
  • Pub.L. 89–134, 79 Stat. 549, enacted August 24, 1965
  • Pub.L. 89–554, 80 Stat. 378, enacted September 6, 1966
  • Pub.L. 89–572, 80 Stat. 764, enacted September 13, 1966
  • Pub.L. 91–99, 83 Stat. 166, enacted October 29, 1969
  • Pub.L. 91–352, 84 Stat. 464, enacted July 24, 1970
  • Pub.L. 94–130, 89 Stat. 684, enacted November 14, 1975 – Bill to carry into effect certain provisions of the Patent Cooperation Treaty, and for other purposes.[63]
  • Pub.L. 95–331, 92 Stat. 414, enacted August 2, 1978 – Peace Corps Act Amendments[64]
  • Pub.L. 96–465, 94 Stat. 2071, enacted October 17, 1980 – The Foreign Service Act of 1980[65]
  • Pub.L. 97–113, 95 Stat. 1519, enacted December 29, 1981 – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981[66]
  • Pub.L. 99–83, 99 Stat. 190, enacted August 8, 1985 – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985[67]
  • Pub.L. 99–514, 100 Stat. 2085, enacted October 22, 1986 – Tax Reform Act of 1986[68]
  • Pub.L. 102–565, 106 Stat. 4265, enacted October 28, 1992 – A bill to amend the Peace Corps Act to authorize appropriations for the Peace Corps for FY1993 and to establish Peace Corps foreign exchange fluctuations account, and for other purposes.[69]
  • Pub.L. 105–12, 111 Stat. 23, enacted April 30, 1997 – The Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction Act of 1997[70]
  • Pub.L. 106–30, 113 Stat. 55, enacted May 21, 1999 – Peace Corps Act, FY2002, 2003 Authorization Bill[71]
  • Peace Corps Reauthorization Act of 2008 at Congress.gov

Public laws are passed by Congress and the President and create or modify the U.S. Code. The first public law establishing Peace Corps in the US Code was The Peace Corps Act passed by the 87th Congress and signed into law on September 22, 1961. Several public laws have modified the Peace Corps Act, including:

Federal laws governing the Peace Corps are contained in Title 22 of the United States Code – Foreign Relations and Intercourse, Chapter 34 – The Peace Corps.[62]

Laws

  • 1961 – 10924 – Establishment and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy)[58]
  • 1962 – 11041 – Continuance and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy)[59]
  • 1963 – 11103 – Providing for the appointment of former Peace Corps volunteers to the civilian career services (Kennedy)[60]
  • 1971 – 11603 – Assigning additional functions to the Director of ACTION (Nixon)
  • 1979 – 12137 – The Peace Corps (Carter)[61]

Peace Corps was originally established by Executive Order, and has been modified by several subsequent executive orders including:

Executive orders

Laws governing the Peace Corps

The Peace Corps website makes available resources for teachers in the US and abroad, under the name of Coverdell Worldwise Schools. Resources include lesson plans, audio lessons in seven languages, guest speakers, and classroom-to-classroom correspondence.[57]

Education and Languages

Peace Corps Response volunteers generally receive the same allowances and benefits as their Peace Corps counterparts, including round-trip transportation, living and readjustment allowances, and medical care. Minimum qualifications include completion of at least one year of Peace Corps service, including training, in addition to medical and legal clearances. The Crisis Corps title was retained as a unique branch within Peace Corps Response, designed for volunteers who are deployed to true “crisis” situations, such as disaster relief following hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and other catastrophes.

The change to Peace Corps Response allowed Peace Corps to include projects that did not rise to the level of a crisis. The program deploys former volunteers on high-impact assignments that typically range from three to twelve months in duration.

Peace Corps Response, formerly named the Crisis Corps, was created by Peace Corps Director Mark Gearan in 1996.[54] Gearan modeled the Crisis Corps after the National Peace Corps Association's successful Emergency Response Network (ERN) of Returned Peace Corps Volunteers willing to respond to crises when needed. ERN emerged in response to the 1994 Rwandan genocide.[55] On November 19, 2007 Peace Corps Director Ronald Tschetter changed Crisis Corps's name to Peace Corps Response.[56]

Peace Corps Response

Forestry programs help communities conserve natural resources through projects such as soil conservation, flood control, creation of sustainable fuels, agroforestry (e.g., fruit and vegetable production), alley cropping, and protection of biodiversity.[53]

Environment Education or Awareness focuses on communities that have environmental issues regarding farming and income. Programs include teaching in elementary and secondary schools; environmental education to youth programs; creation of environmental groups; support forest and marine resource sustainability; ways of generating money; urban sanitation management; and educating farmers about soil conservation, forestry, and vegetable gardening.[52]

In Protected areas management, volunteers work with parks or other programs to teach resource conservation. Volunteer activities include technical training, working with park staff on wildlife preservation, organizing community-based conservation programs for sustainable use of forests or marine resources, and creating activities for raising revenue to protect the environment.

The three major programs are Protected-Areas Management, Environment Education or Awareness, and Forestry.

The Corps offers a variety of environmental programs. Needs assessments determine which programs apply to each country. Programs include effective and efficient forms of farming, recycling, park management, environmental education, and developing alternative fuel sources.[51] Volunteers must have some combination of academic degrees and practical experience.

Environment

The Corps launched its initiative to engage volunteers in malaria control efforts in 2011. The initiative, which grew out of malaria prevention programs in Peace Corps Senegal, now includes volunteers in 24 African countries.[49][50]

Eradicating malaria in Africa

Initiatives

  • Fiji
  • Micronesia and Palau
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Vanuatu[48]
Pacific Islands
  • Cambodia
  • China
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Mongolia
  • Nepal
  • Philippines
  • Thailand[47]
Asia
  • Benin
  • Botswana
  • Burkina Faso
  • Cameroon
  • Ethiopia
  • The Gambia
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Kenya
  • Lesotho
  • Liberia (temporarily suspended in July 2014)
  • Madagascar
  • Malawi
  • Mali (suspended in 2012)
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Niger (suspended in January 2011)
  • Rwanda
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • South Africa
  • Swaziland
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Uganda
  • Zambia[46]
Africa
  • Jordan
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia [45]
North Africa and the Middle East
  • Albania
  • Armenia
  • Azerbaijan
  • Georgia
  • Macedonia
  • Moldova
  • Ukraine
  • Kosovo [43]
  • Kyrgyz Republic [44]
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Guyana
  • Paraguay
  • Peru [42]
South America
  • Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras (suspended in January 2012[40])
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama[41]
Central America and Mexico
  • Dominican Republic
  • Eastern Caribbean (Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines)
  • Jamaica[39]
Caribbean

As of 2009, Peace Corps Volunteers are working in 68 countries:[37]

  Countries served by Peace Corps Volunteers as of 2009.[37]
  Countries formerly served.[38]

Current countries

In 2009, Casey Frazee, who was sexually assaulted while serving in South Africa, created First Response Action, an advocacy group for a stronger Peace Corps response for volunteers who are survivors or victims of physical and sexual violence.[33][34] In 2010, concerns about the safety of volunteers were illustrated by a report, compiled from official public documents, listing hundreds of violent crimes against volunteers since 1989.[35] In 2011, a 20/20 investigation found that "more than 1,000 young American women have been raped or sexually assaulted in the last decade while serving as Peace Corps volunteers in foreign countries."[36]

As part of an economic stimulus package in 2008, President Barack Obama proposed to double the size of the Peace Corps.[27] However, as of 2010, the amount requested was insufficient to reach this goal by 2011. In fact, the number of applicants to the Peace Corps have declined steadily from a high of 15,384 in 2009 to 10,091 in 2012.[28] Congress raised the 2010 appropriation from the US$373 million requested by the President to US$400 million, and proposed bills would raise this further for 2011 and 2012.[29] According to former director Gaddi Vasquez, the Peace Corps is trying to recruit more diverse volunteers of different ages and make it look "more like America".[30] A Harvard International Review article from 2007 proposes to expand the Peace Corps, revisit its mission and equip it with new technology.[31] In 1961 only 1% of volunteers were over 50, compared with 5% today. Ethnic minorities currently comprise 19% of volunteers.[1] 35% of the U.S. population are Hispanic or non-White.[32]

After the 2001 War on Terrorism. For the 2004 fiscal year, Congress passed a budget increase at US$325 million, US$30 million above that of 2003 but US$30 million below the President's request.

Peace Corps trainees swearing in as volunteers in Madagascar, April 26, 2006

In 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed director Loret Miller Ruppe, who initiated business-related programs. For the first time, a significant number of conservative and Republican volunteers joined the Corps, as the organization continued to reflect the evolving political and social conditions in the United States. Funding cuts during the early 1980s reduced the number of volunteers to 5,380, its lowest level since the early years. Funding increased in 1985, when Congress began raising the number of volunteers, reaching 10,000 in 1992.

Although the earliest volunteers were typically thought of as generalists, the Peace Corps had requests for technical personnel from the start. For example, geologists were among the first volunteers requested by Ghana, an early volunteer host. An article in Geotimes (a trade publication) in 1963 reviewed the program, with a follow-up history of Peace Corps geoscientists appearing in that publication in 2004.[26] During the Nixon Administration the Peace Corps included foresters, computer scientists, and small business advisors among its volunteers.

2000–present

[25] In 1976,

In July 1971, President Richard Nixon, an opponent of the program,[9][10][11] brought the Peace Corps under the umbrella agency ACTION. President Jimmy Carter, an advocate of the program, said that his mother, who had served as a nurse in the program, had "one of the most glorious experiences of her life" in the Peace Corps.[23] In 1979, he made it fully autonomous in an executive order. This independent status was further secured by 1981 legislation making the organization an independent federal agency.

1970–1999

Fragment of a 1965 in-country identification card

The organization experienced controversy in its first year of operation. On October 13, 1961, a postcard from a volunteer named Margery Jane Michelmore in Nigeria to a friend in the U.S. described her situation in Nigeria as "squalor and absolutely primitive living conditions."[19][20] However, this postcard never made it out of the country.[20] The University of Ibadan College Students Union demanded deportation and accused the volunteers of being "America's international spies" and the project as "a scheme designed to foster neocolonialism."[21] Soon the international press picked up the story, leading several people in the U.S. administration to question the program.[22] Nigerian students protested the program, while the American volunteers sequestered themselves and eventually began a hunger strike.[20] After several days, the Nigerian students agreed to open a dialogue with the Americans.

[18]

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